[Sequential Models] week3. Sequence models & Attention mechanism

This week: seq2seq.

I-Various sequence to sequence architectures

Basic Models

e.g. Machine translation
encoder network: many-to-one RNN
decoder network: one-to-many RNN

This architecture also works for image captioning: use ConvNet as encoder

Difference between seq2seq and generating new text with language model: seq2seq don't randomly choose a translation, but choose most likely output sequence.





Picking the most likely sentence

Machine translation (or seq2seq in general): a conditional language model.

  • language model: P(y<1>,...,y<T>), x<i> = y<i-1>, initial activation = a<0>
  • seq2seq: feed encoder output as initial activation → P(y<1>...y<T>|x=input seq)


Want to sample most likely output sequence (instead of random sampling)


  • For output sequence of length L, there are |V|^L possiblilities.
  • greedy search: pick most likely word at each step → doesn't work well
  • approximate(not guaranteed) search algo: beam search (next section).

Approximately find most likely output sequence.
algo
parameter: beam width B = 3 (beam serach = greedy for B=1)

  • step 1: find B most likely choices for first word argmax P(y<1>|x)
  • step 2: for each of B previous choices → compute second word probabilities

→ compuate P(y<1>, y<2>|x) by Bayes

initialize B copies of the network, hardwiring each of the B choices of first word from last step
⇒ keep top B most likely first 2 words {y<1>,y<2>}




  • step 3: similar

Length normalization
original object to optimize:
P(y<1>...y) = product of conditional proba: P(y<1>|x)P(y<2>|y<1>,x)...
(in practice: taking log → sum of log-probas, more numerically stable)
with original object function, tends to prefer shorter output sequences
⇒ normalize the probability by output length, i.e. average proba of each word
"normlized log-likelihood"

In practice: use a softer normalization: normalize by T^alpha (typical value: alpha=0.7)







  • alpha=1: fully normalizing by length
  • alpha=0: no normalization

Beam width choice

  • large B: better approximation, better result, slower
  • small B: worse result, but faster

In production: B=10
In research: B=~1000

When error occurs: figure out whether it's due to beam search or RNN model.
Given yhat and y*(human result):
→ feed yhat and y* to RNN language model, compute the probability of each sequence



  • If P(y*)>P(yhat)⇒ beam seach needs improvement
  • If P(y*)<P(yhat) ⇒ RNN needs improvement

Bleu Score (optional)

How to evaluate machine translation systems (multiple correct answers).
BLEU (bilingual evaluation understudy): pretty good single-number eval metrics.
Precision

  • (word-level) Precision: fraction of words in MT output that appears in reference translation
  • Modified precision: each word has a credit: max number of appearance in reference sentences (i.e. clip the count of a word)


Precision on bigrams

For n-grams:
Pn = sum(count_clip of ngram in yhat) / sum(count of ngram in yhat)



Bleu score
Combined Bleu score: exp of avearged precision.

BP: brevety penalty (penalize short translations)




Attention Model Intuition

Human translator: generate translation one part after another, instead of memorize (encode) whole sentence before translate.

  • Input: run B-RNN to get hidden features for each word a<t>
  • Output: also an RNN,

at each step, using context with attention weights alpha to focus on only parts of input features.

Attention alpha<t,t'>: how much attention to pay to t'th input word when generating tth output word: depends on previous output s<t-1>, and RNN input feature a<t'>.



Attention Model

Recap of attention model:
Feature vector at t'th input word: a<t'>
context: input features, weighted by attention weights



Computing attention alpha
Use a<t,t'>=softmax(e<t,t'>) to ensure attention is normalized (over all t's) to one.

⇒ The mapping function from a<t'> and s<t-1> to attention logits e<t,t'> is unknown
→ plug in a NN: e<t,t'> = W * (s<t-1>, a<t'>)— and trust backprop !



downside: quadratique time complexity (Tx * Ty) → acceptable in MT, since input/output seqs are not that long...

II-Speech recognition - Audio data

Speech recognition

seq2seq, where x = audio clip / spectrum gram, y=transcript
pre-DL era: phonemes (hand-engineered basic unit of sound) → no longer necessary with end-to-end learning on large dataset.
Dataset: 300~3000 hours

CTC cost : "Connectionist temporal classification".
Pb in speech recogintion with many-to-many RNN: number of input timesteps are much longer than output.
→ blank and repeated characters are considered correct (collapse repeated characters afterwards)



Trigger Word Detection

Train with an RNN.
Data: audio clips
→ set label 1 right after the trigger word.
pb: unbalanced dataset (a lot of 0s) → label = 1 for several timesteps after trigger word.




Conclusion and thank you

Deep learning is a super power.

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