ex. deal with missing data, entity resolution, unit mismatch, ...
deal with non-ideal samples ⇒ tradeoff between simplicity and accuracy.
DATA QUALITY PROBLEMS
data quality problems:
- Conversions in complex pipelines can mess up data
- Combining multiple datasets can result in errrors
- Data degrades in accuracy or loses value over time
还提供了一些工具帮助cleaning data: http://vis.stanford.edu/wrangler/
EXAMPLE: AGES OF STUDENTS IN THIS COURSE
(students' ages are self-reported...)
DATA CLEANING MAKES EVERYTHING OKAY?
ex. the appearance of a hole in the ozone layer.
DIRTY DATA PROBLEMS
Data Quality Continuum:
solutions in the data gathering stage:
- re-emptive (先发制人)
physical pb: storage is cheap → use data redundancy logical pb: poor metadata, etc
- publish data specifications
- data mining tools
...总之就是各种方面都会引起data quality pb...
DATA QUALITY CONSTRAINTS
static constraints: ex. nulls not allowed, field domains
data constraints follow a 80-20 rule:
Data quality metrics: ... ex. in lab2, examine log lines that are not correctly parsed.
TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO DATA QUALITY
ex. entity resolution in lab3
bing shopping被黑了 convert to canonical form (ex. mailing address)